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ABOUT THE WHITE HOUSE * PRESIDENTS



OUR PRESIDENTS

about_presidents_georgewashington 1. George Washington

about_presidents_johnadams 2. John Adams

about_presidents_thomasjefferson 3. Thomas Jefferson

about_presidents_jamesmadison 4. James Madison

about_presidents_jamesmonroe 5. James Monroe

about_presidents_johnquincyadams 6. John Quincy Adams

about_presidents_andrewjackson 7. Andrew Jackson

about_presidents_martinvanburen 8. Martin Van Buren

about_presidents_williamhenryharrison 9. William Henry Harrison

about_presidents_johntyler 10. John Tyler

about_presidents_jamespolk 11. James K. Polk

about_presidents_zacharytaylor 12. Zachary Taylor

about_presidents_millardfillmore 13. Millard Fillmore

about_presidents_franklinpierce 14. Franklin Pierce

about_presidents_jamesbuchanan 15. James Buchanan

about_presidents_abrahamlincoln 16. Abraham Lincoln

about_presidents_andrewjohnson 17. Andrew Johnson

about_presidents_ulyssessgrant 18. Ulysses S. Grant

about_presidents_rutherfordbhayes 19. Rutherford B. Hayes

about_presidents_jamesgarfield 20. James Garfield

about_presidents_chesterarthur 21. Chester A. Arthur

about_presidents_grovercleveland 22. Grover Cleveland

about_presidents_benjaminharrison 23. Benjamin Harrison

about_presidents_grovercleveland 24. Grover Cleveland

about_presidents_williammckinley 25. William McKinley

about_presidents_theodoreroosevelt 26. Theodore Roosevelt

about_presidents_williamhowardtaft 27. William Howard Taft

about_presidents_woodrowwilson 28. Woodrow Wilson

about_presidents_warrenharding 29. Warren G. Harding

about_presidents_calvincoolidge 30. Calvin Coolidge

about_presidents_herberthoover 31. Herbert Hoover

about_presidents_franklindroosevelt 32. Franklin D. Roosevelt

about_presidents_harrystruman 33. Harry S. Truman

about_presidents_dwightdeisenhower 34. Dwight D. Eisenhower

about_presidents_johnfkennedy 35. John F. Kennedy

about_presidents_lyndonjohnson 36. Lyndon B. Johnson

about_presidents_richardnixon 37. Richard M. Nixon

about_presidents_geraldford 38. Gerald R. Ford

about_presidents_jimmycarter 39. James Carter

about_presidents_ronaldreagan 40. Ronald Reagan

about_presidents_georgehwbush 41. George H. W. Bush

about_presidents_williamjclinton 42. William J. Clinton

about_presidents_georgewbush 43. George W. Bush

administration_president_obama 44. Barack Obama

[[[Image:31hh_header_sm.jpg|450px|Photo]] of Herbert Hoover ]

31. HERBERT HOOVER 1929-1933

Son of a Quaker blacksmith, Herbert Clark Hoover brought to the Presidency an unparalleled reputation for public service as an engineer, administrator, and humanitarian.

Born in an Iowa village in 1874, he grew up in Oregon. He enrolled at Stanford University when it opened in 1891, graduating as a mining engineer.

He married his Stanford sweetheart, Lou Henry, and they went to China, where he worked for a private corporation as China's leading engineer. In June 1900 the Boxer Rebellion caught the Hoovers in Tientsin. For almost a month the settlement was under heavy fire. While his wife worked in the hospitals, Hoover directed the building of barricades, and once risked his life rescuing Chinese children.

One week before Hoover celebrated his 40th birthday in London, Germany declared war on France, and the American Consul General asked his help in getting stranded tourists home. In six weeks his committee helped 120,000 Americans return to the United States. Next Hoover turned to a far more difficult task, to feed Belgium, which had been overrun by the German army.

After the United States entered the war, President Wilson appointed Hoover head of the Food Administration. He succeeded in cutting consumption of foods needed overseas and avoided rationing at home, yet kept the Allies fed.

After the Armistice, Hoover, a member of the Supreme Economic Council and head of the American Relief Administration, organized shipments of food for starving millions in central Europe. He extended aid to famine-stricken Soviet Russia in 1921. When a critic inquired if he was not thus helping Bolshevism, Hoover retorted, "Twenty million people are starving. Whatever their politics, they shall be fed!"

After capably serving as Secretary of Commerce under Presidents Harding and Coolidge, Hoover became the Republican Presidential nominee in 1928. He said then: "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land." His election seemed to ensure prosperity. Yet within months the stock market crashed, and the Nation spiraled downward into depression.

After the crash Hoover announced that while he would keep the Federal budget balanced, he would cut taxes and expand public works spending.

In 1931 repercussions from Europe deepened the crisis, even though the President presented to Congress a program asking for creation of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to aid business, additional help for farmers facing mortgage foreclosures, banking reform, a loan to states for feeding the unemployed, expansion of public works, and drastic governmental economy.

At the same time he reiterated his view that while people must not suffer from hunger and cold, caring for them must be primarily a local and voluntary responsibility.

His opponents in Congress, who he felt were sabotaging his program for their own political gain, unfairly painted him as a callous and cruel President. Hoover became the scapegoat for the depression and was badly defeated in 1932. In the 1930's he became a powerful critic of the New Deal, warning against tendencies toward statism.

In 1947 President Truman appointed Hoover to a commission, which elected him chairman, to reorganize the Executive Departments. He was appointed chairman of a similar commission by President Eisenhower in 1953. Many economies resulted from both commissions' recommendations. Over the years, Hoover wrote many articles and books, one of which he was working on when he died at 90 in New York City on October 20, 1964.


For more information about President Hoover, please visit
Herbert Hoover Library and Museum

MD5: 05395abf3074b02e37785048f0b4319e
Original URL: http://whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/herberthoover/

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